The implication of science and technology to man’s use is as old as 2500 B.C. or much earlier when the people of Indus Valley Civilization came to know the first time about the fire and the wheel. The wheel is the mother of all technological innovations of today and the discovery of fire is man’s first experience about energy. Since then, man’s curiosity and meticulous efforts have helped him with new innovations and discoveries. But, science and technology go their real recognition in India during the British period and were established to meet the needs and requirements of the government. During the 19th century, when the whole of Europe passed through the Industrial Revolution, the Britishers also put emphasis on the development of science and technology in India. The establishment of the railway system, the building of canals, and the development of a network of metrological stations began.
The first scientific survey of this country was done during this time. Several academic institutions, such as the Asiatic Society in Calcutta in 1784, the Indian Association for the Advancement of Science in 1876, and many others were created. Today, the system by which research and development lead to new products is fundamentally different than it was in the 19th century. To the role of the individual investor has been added the power of organized scientific research and development, which are increasingly international in character, have greatly increased the production of new knowledge. A deeper understanding of living organisms is leading towards cures of diseases once thought.